1. Read Aloud
While some might think of a teaching reading aloud as something that only happens in elementary classrooms, there is evidence that reading aloud also benefits middle and high school students as well.
2. Stop and Ask Questions to Yourself as You Read
A good strategy to teach struggling readers is that instead of just rushing through a passage or chapter, they should stop and ask themselves questions. Doing this can help them focus on the main ideas and increase the student's engagement with the material.
3. Talk with Someone Else About What Is Being Read
Having students stop periodically and discuss what has just been read can reveal any issues with understanding and can reinforce what is being taught.
4. Look at the Headings and Other Information before You Begin
An excellent strategy that soon becomes second nature is to have struggling students read through all the headings and subheadings in any chapter that they have been assigned. This information can help them gain an overview of what they will be learning as they read the chapter.
5. Keep Paper Handy for Notes and Questions
Students should read a chapter with paper and pen in hand. They can then take notes, write down questions they think of, and create a vocabulary list of all the highlighted words in the chapter along with any unfamiliar terms that they need to define.
6. Learn to Cluster Words
Clustering is a skill that increases reading comprehension by having students learn to read groups of words that form phrases or fit together semantically into one cluster.
7. Use Graphic Organizers as You Read
Some students find that graphic organizers like webs and concept maps can greatly enhance reading comprehension. These allow students to identify areas of focus and main ideas in a reading.
8. Practice PQ4R
This consists of six steps: Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review. Preview has students scan the material to get an overview. Question means that students should ask themselves questions as they read. The four R's have students read the material, reflect on what has just been read, recite the major points to yourself, and then finally go back over the material and see if you can answer the questions you previously asked.
9. Stop and Summarize
As students read, have them periodically stop their reading and summarize what they have just read. This will aid in their understanding of the material being covered.
10. Write Questions about the Material
After students have read a passage, have them go back and write questions that could be included in a quiz or test on the material. This will require them to look at the information in a different manner.